300 hypothyroidism symptoms: count how many you have

300 hypothyroidism symptoms: count how many you have

The World Health Organization estimates that thyroid dysfunction affects 750 million people worldwide and the American Thyroid Association warns that up to 60 percent of those with thyroid disease are unaware of their condition.

Of the 750 million people with thyroid dysfunction, 1.3 million of them are currently following my site Hypothyroid Mom. The majority are here because they are still feeling unwell despite standard hypothyroidism treatment. Most are told their thyroid is “fine” while they struggle with a countless number of symptoms. Often times their doctors have no clue the vast array of symptoms that can befall a thyroid patient and most patients have no idea their symptoms could possibly be a red flag that their condition is not being well treated. Some may back down from speaking up to their doctor because they feel “doctor knows best” or that they don’t have any scientific proof to back up their claims…until now.

The first step before anything with hypothyroidism is to know the symptoms. There are over 300. Yes you read that correctly. Every single cell of the body requires thyroid hormone for proper functioning, so every single part of the body is vulnerable when you have abnormal thyroid function.

Of course not every single symptom you experience is caused by your thyroid. And not everyone will present with the exact same symptoms. It’s an interesting thing really how thyroid disease can present in different ways in different people.

At my lowest point with hypothyroidism when I could barely keep my eyes open through the day, I suffered from 118 symptoms on this list. I was a walking billboard for hypothyroidism, yet my doctor at that time insisted my thyroid was “normal”. Now thanks to optimal thyroid treatment including all the many pieces of the thyroid puzzle that I include at Hypothyroid Mom, the majority of my symptoms have completely disappeared. I just recently counted the number of symptoms that I experience and I only have 9 left that persist but even then most of the 9 are greatly improved.

If you are experiencing a high number of the symptoms on this list, then this is your big red flag (and I’m waving it wildly at you).

I have spent more days than you can imagine creating this article, carefully putting together a list of scientific studies on the bottom of the article to back up the symptoms on this list. I hope this article above all others at Hypothyroid Mom passes the power into your hands. Your symptoms are not all in your head. No, you are not crazy or lazy or faking, even if other people make you feel that way. Convincing yourself of this can change your world.

Even if your current doctor refuses to help, you will know without a shadow of a doubt that you need to find an open-minded thyroid doctor. Even if that means firing 10 doctors until you find the one that helps.

Now let’s get started and don’t forget to count the number of symptoms that you experience as you go through the list of 306.

I know this is a seriously long list, but getting that final score may very well shock you and (my great hope) spur you into the biggest wellness journey of your life. Remember to count your symptoms again over time to track your improvements as you learn more about effective thyroid treatments at Hypothyroid Mom.

You may be wondering how to print this article or any other article at Hypothyroid Mom. Go to the article you wish to print, then select File then Print or type command P. This will open a printing window where you select your settings and print.

Energy & Hypothyroidism

Excessive daytime sleepiness

Unusually long periods of sleep at night

Slow recovery after exercise



Need to nap


Fatigue after waking

Metabolism & Hypothyroidism

Weight gain

Inability to lose weight

Ascites (buildup of fluid in abdomen)


Accumulation of thick, heavy fat



Weight loss

Increased appetite

Decreased appetite


Body Temperature & Hypothyroidism

Freezing hands

Freezing feet

Cold sweats

Intolerance to cold

Intolerance to heat

Skin hot or cold to the touch

Night sweats

Shivering episodes

Clammy hands

Excessing sweating

Decreased sweating

Low basal body temperature

High basal body temperature

Increased risk of hypothermia

Susceptibility to Infections & Hypothyroidism





Slow infection recovery

Sinus infections

Skin infections

Ear infections

H. Pylori

Epstein-Barr Virus

Candida (yeast)


Athlete’s Foot

Urinary tract infections

Bladder infections

Poly-Autoimmunity & Hypothyroidism

Addison’s Disease

Alopecia Areata

Celiac Disease

Chronic Urticaria

Graves’ Disease

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Lichen Planus

Multiple Sclerosis

Pernicious Anemia

Premature Ovarian Failure


Raynaud’s Disease

Rheumatoid Arthritis



Sjögren’s Syndrome

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Type 1 Diabetes


Oral Cavity & Hypothyroidism

Macroglossia (enlargement of tongue)

Glossitis (inflammation of tongue)

Tongue with scalloped edges

Dysgeusia (altered sense of taste)

Mouth breathing

Retention of primary teeth

Delayed or absent eruption of permanent teeth

Malocclusion (misalignment of teeth)

Salivary gland enlargement

Susceptibility to periodontal disease

Bleeding gums

Swollen gums

Receding gums

Susceptibility to cavities

Enamel hypoplasia (pits, spots, grooves in enamel)

Burning mouth

Dry mouth

Tooth sensitivity

Bad breath

Ears & Hypothyroidism


Ringing ears



Balance problems

Meniere’s disease

Pressure in ears

Itchy ears

Dry, scaly ear canal

Excess wax in ear canal

Hearing loss

Eyes & Hypothyroidism

Dry eyes

Eyelid puffiness

Eye irritation

Eye protrusion

Ptosis (drooping of eyelid)

Eyelid twitches

Diplopia (double vision)

Impaired color contrast sensitivity

Noninfectious uveitis (inflammation of eye)



Yellowing of the whites of eyes

Xanthelasma (yellow bumps around eyelids)

Hair & Hypothyroidism

Hair loss

Dry hair

Frizzy hair

Brittle hair

Coarse hair

Fine hair

Dry, flaky, itchy scalp

Scalp redness


Premature gray hair

Loss of eyelashes

Loss of outer third of eyebrows

Hair loss on rest of body

Extremities & Hypothyroidism

Gait abnormality (pattern of walking)

Slow tendon reflex relaxation time

Dry, flaky, cracked feet


Palmoplantar keratoderma (thickening of soles of feet or palms of hands)

Slow nail growth

Thick, dry, cracked, brittle nails

Longitudinal ridges on nails

Absent lunulae (half moons)

Onycholysis (separation of nail from nail bed)

Spoon nails (koilonychia)

Clubbing of fingers and toes

Skin & Hypothyroidism

Dry skin

Pruritus (itchy skin)



Skin tags

Easy bruising

Slow wound healing


Yellow skin

Pale skin

Lichen sclerous (itchy white patches on genitals or other body part)

Numbness, tingling, pins and needles sensation

Digestive System & Hypothyroidism




Colonic diverticula

Anal fissure

Hiatal hernia

Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)

Sensation of food being stuck in the neck

Dyspepsia (indigestion)


Abdominal discomfort

Megacolon (abnormal dilation of colon)

Gastrointestinal bleeding

Common bile duct stones

Gallbladder stones

Reduced bilirubin excretion

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Gastroesophageal Reflux GERD

Elevated liver enzymes

Liver cirrhosis

Chronic active hepatitis

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease

Reduced bile flow

Hypotonia of gallbladder

Chronic gallbladder disease

Pancreas islet damage

Chronic pancreatitis

Impaired insulin secretion


Pain & Hypothyroidism

Body ache

Myalgia (muscle pain)

Muscle cramps

Arthralgia (joint pain)

Shoulder pain

Neck pain

Low back pain


Carpal tunnel syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder)

Spontaneous rupture of tendons

Dupuytren’s contracture (finger permanently bent into your palm)

Trigger finger (locking when you bend your finger)


Limited joint mobility



Chronic headache


Restless leg syndrome

Plantar fasciitis


Peripheral neuropathy

Temporomandibular disorder

Reproductive System & Hypothyroidism

Diminished libido

Hypomenorrhea (light menstrual bleeding)

Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding)

Metrorrhagia (bleeding beyond normal 3 to 5 days)

Intermenstrual bleeding (bleeding between periods)

Polymenorrhea (menstrual cycle less than 21 days)

Oligomenorrhea (menstrual cycle greater than 35 days)

Polymenorrhagia (heavy frequent periods)

Painful periods

Amenorrhea (missing 3 periods in a row)

Anovulation (lack of ovulation)




Premature delivery

Low birth weight

Fetal distress in labor

Placental abruption (placenta separates early from uterus)

Preeclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in urine in pregnancy)

Gestational diabetes (high blood sugar in pregnancy)

Postpartum hemorrhage

Precocious or delayed puberty

Premature menopause


Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids)

Benign breast disease

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Brain & Hypothyroidism


Postpartum depression




Poor memory

Cognitive dysfunction

Impaired concentration


Seasonal affective disorder


Altered mood






Urinary System & Hypothyroidism

Reduced glomerular filtration rate

Decreased urinary concentrating ability

Elevated serum creatinine

Elevated serum urea

Increased 24-hour urine protein

Hyponatremia (low sodium in blood)

Decreased cystatin C

Chronic kidney disease

Glomerular disease

Nephrotic syndrome


Reduced or increased voiding frequency

Decreased water load excretion

Urinary incontinence

Interstitial cystitis

Kidney failure

Respiratory System & Hypothyroidism

Pain in lower neck

Hoarse voice

Speech disorders



Chest wheezes

Chest pain




Increased sensitivity of the cough reflex

Hypoventilation (reduced breaths per minute)

Increased sputum production

Hypoxia (low oxygen in blood)

Pulmonary congestion

Hypercapnia (too much carbon dioxide in blood)

Sleep apnea


Pleural effusion

Respiratory muscle weakness

Diaphragm weakness

Impaired exercise capacity

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary fibrosis

Interstitial lung disease

Respiratory failure

Cardiovascular System & Hypothyroidism

Slow or fast heart rate

High or low blood pressure

High cholesterol

Pulmonary hypertension

Pericardial effusion



Coronary artery disease

Atrioventricular block

Angina (chest pain)


Atrial fibrillation

Enlarged heart

Cardiac tamponade

Mitral valve prolapse


Heart attack

Congestive heart failure

How many symptoms did you count?

Your Total Hypothyroidism Symptoms Score:

______ / 306

Are you shocked?

I knew you would be.

Hypothyroidism Symptoms in Recent Scientific Literature:


Chaker, L., et al. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. 2017 Sep 23;390(10101):1550-1562.

Cohen, A., et al. Comorbidities in a community sample of narcolepsy. Sleep Med. 2018 Mar;43:14-18.

Dunn, D., Turner, C. Hypothyroidism in Women. Nurs Womens Health. 2016 Feb-Mar;20(1):93-8.

Louwerens, M. et al. Fatigue and fatigue-related symptoms in patients treated for different causes of hypothyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Dec;167(6):809-15.

Sethi, B., et al. The Thyroid Registry: Clinical and Hormonal Characteristics of Adult Indian Patients with Hypothyroidism. Indian J Endocrine Metab. 2017 Mar-Apr;21(2):302-307.


Khalid, S., et al. Myxedema Ascites: A Rare Presentation of Uncontrolled Hypothyroidism. Cureus. 2016 Dec;8(12):e912.

Laurberg, P., et al. Thyroid Function and Obesity. Eur Thyroid J. 2012 Oct;1(3):159-167.

Mullur, R., et al. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism. Physiol Rev. 2014 Apr;94(2):355-382.

Neki, N.S. Pitting Edema in Hypothyroidism. JIMSA. 2013 Apr-Jun;26(2):133.

Witkowska-Sędek, E., et al. Thyroid dysfunction in obese and overweight children. Endokrynol Pol. 2017;68(1):54-60.

Body Temperature

Charoenpong, P., et al. 1343: Hypothermia as a presentation of hypothyroidism. Critical Care Medicine. 2013 Dec;4(12):A347.

Obermeyer, Z., et al. Individual differences in normal body temperature: a longitudinal big data analysis of patient records. BMJ. 2017 Dec 13;359:j5468.

Warner, A., et al. Inappropriate heat dissipation ignites brown fat thermogenesis in mice with a mutant thyroid hormone receptor α1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013 Oct 1;110(40):16241-6.

Warner, A., Mittag, J. Brown fat and vascular heat dissipation. Adipocyte. 2014 Jul 1; 3(3): 221–223.

Susceptibility to Infections

Chetambath, R., et al. Severe pneumonia in a young female with a possible causal relationship to hypothyroidism – A case report and review of literature. IJMAR. 2017;2(2):17-24.

Dittfeld, A., et al. A possible link between the Epstein-Barr virus infection and autoimmune thyroid disorders. Cent Eur J Immunol. 2016;41(3):297-301.

Günel, C., et al. [The relationship between hypothyroidism and rhinitis]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2010 Jul-Aug;20(4):163-8.

Hou, Y., et al. Meta-analysis of the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Oncotarget. 2017 Dec 29;8(70):115691-115700.

Khan, Q., et al. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infection in autoimmune thyroid patients. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017;5(2):1335-1337.

Macura. A.B., et al. [Nail susceptibility to fungal infections in patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism]. Przegl Lek. 2005;62(4):218021.

Nóbrega, M.M., et al. Bacteriuria and urinary tract infection after female urodynamic studies: risk factors and microbiological analysis. Am J Infect Control. 2015 Oc 1;43(10):1035-9.

Ren, H., et al. The non-thyroidal illness syndrome is associated with postoperative surgical site infections in enterocutaneous fistulae. Int J Surg. 2018 Feb 7;51:213-217.

Sajid, K.M., et al. Thyroid function in pulmonary tuberculosis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006 Oct;16(10):633-6.


Anaya, J.M., et al. Sjögren’s Syndrome and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Clin Rev Allergy Immune. 2018 Sep 5.

Anoop, J., et al. Unravelling thyroid dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: History matters. Int J Rheum Dis. 2018 March;21(3):688-692.

Barmpari, M.E., et al. Thyroid Dysfunction among Greek Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a Disregarded Comorbidity. J Diabetes Res. 2017;2017:6505814.

Bliddal, S., et al. Recent advances in understanding autoimmune thyroid disease: the tallest tree in the forest of polyautoimmunity. F1000Res. 2017;6:1776.

Edwards, N.C., et al. Comorbidity in US patients with multiple sclerosis. Patient Relat Outcome Meas. 2018 Feb 13;9:97-102.

Li, D., et al. The Association of Thyroid Disease and Oral Lichen Planus: A Literature Review and Meta-analysis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne): 2017;8:310.

Norström, F., at al. The Impact of Thyroid Autoimmunity on Thyroid function in 12-year-old Children with Celiac Disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 Jan 25.

Perga, S., et al. The Footprints of Poly-Autoimmunity: Evidence for Common Biological Factors Involved in Multiple Sclerosis and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Front Immunol. 2018;9:311.

Robazzi, T.C.M.V., Adan, F.F. Autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with rheumatic diseases. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2012;52(3):423-430.

Schneider, L.K. Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome on the Rise, Clinical Vigilance Needed. EndocrineWeb.

Solanki, K.K., et al. High Prevalence of Antithyroid Antibodies in a New Zealand Cohort of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Feb 15.

Vachiramon, V., et al. Prevalence of Thyroid Abnormalities in Thai Patients with Vitiligo. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7502935.

Oral Cavity

Chandna, S., Gathla, M. Oral manifestations of thyroid disorders and its management. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;15(Suppl2):S113-S116.

Costa, C., et al. A systemic disease un…suspected by physical examination. BMJ Case Report. 2014 Oct 9;2014.

Dudhia, S.B., Dudhia, B.B. Undetected hypothyroidism: A rare dental diagnosis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2014 May;18(2):315-9.

Femiano, F., et al. Burning mouth syndrome and burning mouth in hypothyroidism: proposal for a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol.Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008 Jan;105(1):e22-7.

Grozdinska, A., et al. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie

Gupta, R., et al. Oral Manifestations of Hypothyroidism: A Case Report. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 May;8(5):ZD20-ZD22. 2018 Jul;79(4):277-288.

Kothiwale, S., Panjwani, V. Impact of thyroid hormone dysfunction on periodontal disease. Journal of The Scientific Society. 2016. 43(1):34-37.

Li, D., et al. The Association of Thyroid Disease and Oral Lichen Planus: A Literature Review and Meta-analysis. Front Endocrine (Lausanne). 2017 Nov 9;8:310.

Naik, M.M., Vassandacoumara, V. Qualitative and quantitative salivary changes and subjective oral dryness among patients with thyroid dysfunction. Indian J Dent Res. 2018 Jan-Feb;29(1):16-21.

Tong, H.J., et al. Management of a child with severe hypodontia in the mixed dentition stage of development. Our Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014 Dec;15(6):449-54.

Venkatesh Babu, N.S., Patel, P.B. Oral health status of children suffering from thyroid disorders. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2016 Apr-Jun;34(2):139-44.

Wémeau, J.L., et al. [Oral and dental expression of thyroid diseases]. Presse Med. 2017 Sep;46(9):864-868.

Zahid, T.M., et al. The Effects of Thyroid Hormone Abnormalities on Periodontal Disease Status. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. 2011;13(3):80-85.


Andrade, C.L.O., et al. Mechanisms involved in hearing disorders of thyroid ontogeny: a literature review. Arch Endocrine Metab. 2017 Setp-Oct;61(5):501-505.

Fayyaz, B., Upreti, S. Autoimmune inner ear disease secondary to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a case report. J Community Hosp Intern Med Prospect. 2018;8(4):227-229.

Karakus, C.F., et al. Is sensorineural hearing loss related with thyroid metabolism disorders. Indian Journal of Otology. 2015;21(2):138-143.

Kim, H.J., et al. Analysis of the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus in adults. PLoS One. 2015 May 28;10(5):e0127578.

Lichtenberger-Geslin, L., et al. Factors Associated with Hearing Impairment in Patients with Congenital Hypothyroidism Treated Since the Neonatal Period: A National Population-Based Study. JCEM. 2013 Sep 1;98(9):3644-3652.

Messina, A., et al. Italian survey on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2017 Aug;37(4):328-335.

Orhan, I., et al. Tympanometric changes and eustachian tube function in patients with hypothyroidism. J Craniofac Surg. 2014 May;25(3):e230-3.

Santosh, U.P., Rao, M.S. Incidence of Hypothyroidism in Meniere’s Disease. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 May;10(5):MC01-3.

Wojtczak, R., et al. Epidemiology of dizziness in northern Poland – The first Polish neurootologic survey of the general population. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017 Sep 21;24(3):502-506.


Ajith, T.A., et al. Association of Hypothyroidism with Glaucoma: A Recent Update: ARC Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016;1(1):23-27.

Cakir, M., et al. The Effect of Hypothyroidism on Color Contrast Sensitivity: A Prospective Study. Eur Thyroid J. 2015 Mar;4(1):43-47.

Choi, H.Y., et al. Recurrent oculomotor neuritis related to autoimmune hypothyroidism. Case Report. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2015;36(4):303-5.

Jain, D., et al. A Case Report on Severe Hypothyroidism Associated with Complete Bilateral Ptosis: A Rare Presentation. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2016 May;31(1):65.

Ju, C., Zhang, L. Diplopia in a patient with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: A case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jun;96(26):e7330.

Kan, E., et al. Presence of Dry Eye in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014. vol. 2014, Article ID 754923, 4 pages.

Laftah, Z., Al-Naimi, F. Xanthelasma: An update on treatment modalities. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2018;11:1-6.

Mahto, R.S. Ocular features of hypothyroidism. Brit J Ophthalmology. 1972;56:546.

Rosenblatt, A., et al. Association Between Non-Infectious Uveitis and Thyroid Dysfunction: A Case Control Study. Thyroid. 2017 Jun 1;27(6):757-761.

Wang, S., et al. Hypothyroidism as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Oct 25;12(10):e0186634.


Bin Saif, G.A. Severe subtype of alopecia areata is highly associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Saudi Med J. 2016 Jun;37(6):656-61.

Contreras-Jurado, C., et al. Impaired Hair Growth and Wound Healing in Mice Lacking Thyroid Hormone Receptors. PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108137.

Contreras-Jurado, C., et al. Thyroid hormone signaling controls hair follicle stem cell function. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Apr 1;26(7):1263-72.

Siah, T.W., et al. Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Referral Center. Int J Trichology. 2016 Apr-Jun;8(2):57-61.

Wolff, H., et al. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Hair and Scalp Diseases. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016 May 27;113(21):377-86.


Aishwarya, K., et al. Clinical Signs in Hypothyroidism – Myoedema and Woltman Sign. QJM. 2017 Nov 28.

Bano, A., et al. Gait patterns associated with thyroid function: The Rotterdam Study. Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 14:6:38912

Krishnamurthy, A., et al. Clinical signs in hypothyroidism – myxoedema and Woltman sign. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 2018 Mar;111(3):193.

Mathur, S.K., et al. Clubbing in a Case of Hypothyroidism. JAPI. 2008. 56.:241.

Razi, A., et al. Evaulation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Pak J Biol Sci. 2013 Jun 1;16(11):541-4.


Al-Arashi, W., et al. [A man who was unable to open his eyes]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2018;162(0):D2176.

Couto, J.A., et al. Nodular Foot Myxedema Masquerading as Lymphedema. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery – Global Open. 2015 Jul;3(7):e457.

Firouzi, A., et al. The Combined Effects of Levothyroxine and Low Level Laser Therapy on Wound Healing in Hypothyroidism Male Rat Model. J Lasers Med Sci. 2018 Winter;9(1):7-10.

Haritha, S., Kirthi Sampath, K. Skin Manifestations of Hypothyroidism-A Clinical Study. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013 May-Jun;7(2):58-60.

Lause, M., et al. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders. Transl Pediatr. 2017 Oct;6(4):300-312.

Keen, M.A., et al. A Clinical Study of the Cutaneous Manifestations of Hypothyroidism in Kashmir Valley. Indian J Dermatol. 2013 Jul-Aug;58(4):326.

Mogaddam, M.R., Alamdari, M.I., Maleki, N. Ardabili, N. Abedkouhi, S. Evaluation of auotimmune thyroid disease in melasma. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;14(2):167-71.

Pal, B. Paraesthesia. BMJ. 2002 Jun 22;324(7352):1501.

Platsidaki, E., et al. The Association of Various Metabolic Parameters with Multiple Skin Tags. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018;11(10):40-43.

Safer, J.D. Thyroid hormone action on skin. Dermatoendocrinol. 2011 Jul-Sep;3(3):211-215.

Safer, J.D. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing. J Thyroid Res. 2013;2013:1234538.

Sharma, R.K., et al.  Study of Thyroid Function in Housewives with Chronic and Relapsing Hand Eczema. IJIRMS. 2017 Feb;02(02):592-594.

Stewart, T.J., Bazergy, C. Thyroid autoimmunity in female post-adolescent acne: A case-control study. Dermatoendocrinol. 2017 Dec 12;9(1):e1405198.

Takir, M., et al. Skin findings in autoimmune and non autoimmune thyroid disease with respect to thyroid functional status and healthy controls. Turk J Med Sci. 2017 Jun 12;47(3):764-770.

Talaee, R., Ghafarpasand, I., Masror, H. The Relationship Between Melasma and Disturbances in the Serum Level of Thyroid Hormones and Indices. Open Science. 2015;2(2):19-23.

Thachil, J., et al. Management of hypothyroidism in adults. Response: Look for hypothyroidism in women with easy bruising. BMJ. 2008;337:a801. Retrieved from: https://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/02/look-hypothyroidism-women-easy-bruising

Vergou, T., Mantzou, E., Tseke, P., Moustou, A.E., Katsambas, A., Alevizaki, M., Antoniou, C. Association of thyroid autoimmunity with acne in adult women. J Eur Acad Dermal Venereol. 2012 Apr;26(4):413-6.

Digestive System

Akyüz, F., Mutluay Soyer, Ö. Which diseases are risk factors for developing gastroesophageal reflux disease? Turk J Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec;28(Supplement 1):S44-S47.

Carter, D., et al. The Severity of Symptoms Related to Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a Risk Factor for the Misclassification of Significant Organic Disease. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2016 June 24.

Chen, C., et al. The Roles of Thyroid and Thyroid Hormone in Pancreas: Physiology and Pathology. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2018, vol. 2018, Article ID 2861034, 14 pages.

Chogle, A., Saps, M. Yield and cost of performing screening tests for constipation in children. Can J Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec;27(12):e35-8.

Duong, N., et al. Case of acute mixed liver injury due to hypothyroidism. BMJ Case Rep. 2018 Jan 23;2018.

Filik, L., Aktas, M.N. Is there a Link between Colonic Diverticula and Thyroid Disorder? Gastroenterology & Hepatology: Open Access. 2016;5(7).

Harbuwono, D.S., et al. Improvement of Metabolic Parameters Resulted from Levothyroxine Therapy in Hypothyroid Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patient. Acta Med Indones. 2016 Apr;48(2):145-7.

He, W., et al. Relationship between Hypothyroidism and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis. Front Endocrine (Lausanne). 2017 Nov 29;8:335.

İlhan, M., et al. Esophagus motility in overt hypothyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest. 2014 Jul;37(7):639-44.

Khoja, H.R., et al. Prevalence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Gall Bladder tone and CBD Stone Disease Patients – A Three Year Study. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2018;7(5):38-41.

Komatsu, K., et al. High prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Jun;50(6):1052-7.

Kopylov, U., et al. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and the risk of development of colonic diverticulosis. Digestion. 2012;86(3):201-5.

Laukkharinen, J., et al. The underlying mechanisms: how hypothyroidism affects the formation of common bile duct stones-a review. HPB Surg. 2012;2012:102825.

Laukkarinen, J., et al. Bile duct stone procedures are more frequent in patients with hypothyroidism. A large, registry-based, cohort study in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2010;45(1).

Mapel, D.W., et al. The epidemiology and treatment of anal fissures in a population-based cohort. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 16;14:129.

Nomura, M. Association of Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux with Metabolic Syndrome Parameters in Patients with Endocrine Disease. ISRN Gastroenterol. 2014;2014:863206.

Oh, R.C., et al. Mildly Elevated Liver Transaminase Levels: Causes and Evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Dec 1;96(11):709-715.

Ozair, M., et al. Prevalence of thyroid disorders in North Indian Type 2 diabetic subjects: A cross sectional study. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017 Dec 20. pii: S1871-4021(17)30421-6.

Răcătăianu, N., et al. Thyroid disorders in obese patients. Does insulin resistance make a difference? Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Dec;61(6):575-583..

Rodriguez Lugo, D.A., et al. [Primary biliary cholangitis. Part 1. State of the art, epidemiology, physiopathology and clinical manifestations]. Rev. Gastroenterol Peru. 2017 Oct-Dec;37(4):357-364.

Savina, L.V., et al. [Hiatus hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease as a manifestation of a newly revealed hypothyroidism]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2006;84(2):71-4.

Shabanzadeh, D.M., et al. Screen-detected gallstone disease and autoimmune diseases – A cohort study. Dig Liver Dis. 2018 Jan 31. pii: S1590-8658(18)30141-5.

Shizuma, T. Concomitant Thyroid Disorders and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Literature Review. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:5187061.

Sinha, R.A., et al. Direct effects of thyroid hormones on hepatic lipid metabolism. Nat Rev Endocrine. 2018 Feb 23.

Subekti, I., et al. Thyroid Dysfuntion in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Acta Med Indones. 2017 Oct-49(4):314-323.


Alakes, K.K., et al. Rheumatic manifestations in primary hypothyroidism. Indian Journal of Rheumatology. March 2013;8(1):8-13.

Brooks, L., et al. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue? J Pain REs. 2015 Aug 20;8:561-9.

Cakir, M., et al. Musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with thyroid disease. Clinical Endocrinology. Sep 2003;59(2):162-7.

Eslamian, F., et al. Electrophysiologic Changes in Patients with Untreated Primary Hypothyroidism. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. June 2011;28(3):323-328.

Evans, R.W., Timm, J.S. New Daily Persistent Headache Caused by a Multinodular Goiter and Headaches Associated with Thyroid Disease. Headache. 2017 Feb;57(2):285-289.

Haliloglu, S., et al. Fibromyalgia in patients with thyroid autoimmunity: prevalence and relationship with disease activity. Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Jul;36(7):1617-1621.

Hezarkhani, S., et al. Rheumatologic manifestations in Iranian patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Oct;8(10):MC06-8.

Joshi, R., et al. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with disease activity. Sage Journals. 20 Jan 2016;47(1):2017.

Kame, S.S., Bhalerao, N.S. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Hypothyroidism. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Feb;10(2):OC36-8.

Oliva, F., et al. Thyroid hormones enhance growth and counteract apoptosis in human tenocytes isolated from rotator cuff tendons. Cell Death Dis. 313;4(7):705.

Pantazis, K., et al. Spontaneous rupture of the long head of the biceps tendon in a woman with hypothyroidism: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2016;10:2.

See, L.C., et al. Hyperthyroid and hypothyroid status was strongly associated with gout and weakly associated with hyperuricaemia. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 8;9(12):e114579.

Song, H.S., et al. Association between temporomandibular disorders, chronic diseases, and ophthalmologic and otolaryngology disorders Korean adults: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2018 Jan 31;13(1):e0191336.

Tan, E.K., et al. Restless legs symptoms in thyroid disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2004 Mar;10(3):149-51.

Reproductive System

Ajmani, N.S., et al. role of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Menstrual Disorders in Tertiary Care Center of Walled City of Delhi. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2016 Apr;66(2):115-9.

Anil, C., et al. The prevalence of benign breast diseases in patients with nodular goiter and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2015 Sep;38(9):971-5.

Deshmukh, P.Y., et al. The association of thyroid disorders with abnormal uterine bleeding. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun;4(3):701-708.

Digra, M., et al. Thyroid profile in women with menstrual disorders. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug;6(8):3300-3305.

Getahun, D., et al. Association between maternal hypothyroidism and autism spectrum disorders in children. Pediatr Res. 2017 Dec 15.

Ghaemi, N., et al. Precocious Puberty: An Unusual Presentation of Hypothyroidism. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2013 Dec;1(2):51-54.

Jing, S., et al. Ignored adult primary hypothyroidism presenting chiefly with persistent ovarian cysts: a need for increased awareness. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:119.

Kim, M.H., et al. The relationship between thyroid nodules and uterine fibroids. Endocr J. 2010;57(7):615-21.

Kowalczyk, K., et al. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jan;21(2):346-360.

Krassas, G.E., et al. Thyroid Function and Human Reproductive Health. Endocrine Reviews. 2010 Oct 1;31(5):702-755.

López-Tinoco, C., et al. Impact of positive thyroid autoimmunity on pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr. 2018 Jan 6.

Mansourian, A.R. Female reproduction physiology adversely manipulated by thyroid disorders. a review of literature. Pak J Biol Sci. 2013 Feb 1;16(3):112-20.

Martinez, M., et al. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and its association to perinatal and obstetric morbidity: a review. Endocrinol Diabetes Nutrients. 2018 Feb;65(2):107-113.

Miranda, A., Sousa, N. Maternal hormal milieu influence on fetal brain development. Brain Behav. 2018 Jan 24;8(2):e00920.

Okeke, T.C., et al. Premature Menopause. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013 Jan-Mar;3(1):90-95.

Osman, H.A., et al. Precocious puberty: An experience from a major teaching hospital in Central Saudi Arabia. Sudan J Paediatr. 2017;17(1):19-24.

Ott, J., et al. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with the presence of uterine leiomyoma: a retrospective analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014 Jun;177:19-22.

Patel, N., Kashanian, J.A. Thyroid Dysfunction and Male Reproductive Physiology. Semin Reprod Med. 2016 Nov;34(6):356-360.

Rajiwade, S.R., et al. Endocrine Abnormalities in Adolescents with Menstrual Disorders. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2018 Feb;68(1):58-64.

Rawal, S., et al. A Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Markers Across Pregnancy and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes. JCEM. 2018 Jul 1;103(7):2447-2456.

Sinaii, N., et al. High rates of autoimmune and endocrine disorders, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and atopic diseases among women with endometriosis: a survey analysis. Human Reproduction. 2022 Oct;17(10):2715-2724.

Singla, R., et al. Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2015 jan-Feb;19(1):25-29.

Smith, A., et al. Thyroid disorder in pregnancy and postpartum. Just Prescribed. 2017 Dec;40(6):214-219.

Thompson, W., et al. Maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and risk of neurodevelopment disorders in offspring. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2018 Jan 11.

Tudosa, R., et al. Maternal and fetal complications of the hypothyroidism-related pregnancy. Maedica (Buchar). 2010 Apr;5(2):116-123.


Abd El Rahman, S., et al. Thyroid dysfunction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and effect of comorbidity. Egypt J Psychiatr. 2014;35:89-94.

Agachanli, R., et al. Psychosis related with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report. Düşünen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences. 2016 Jun;29(2):181-6.

Alex, C., Kumar, R. An interesting case of Myxedema Mania – A case report. RGUHS Med Sciences. 2015;5(1):27-29.

Al-Mendalawi, M. Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in an 11-year-old girl, a rare clinical presentation. Thyroid Research and Practice. 2017;14(3):133.

Bathla, M., et al. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients with hypothyroidism. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jul-Aug;20(4):468-474.

Brockington, I. Non-reproductive triggers of postpartum psychosis. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017;20:61.

Calzà, L., et al. Thyroid Hormone and the White Matter of the Central Nervous System: From Development to Repair. Vitam Horm. 2018;106:253-281.

Capetillo-Ventura, N., Baeza, I. Psychiatric Symptoms due to Thyroid Disease in a Female Adolescent. Case Rep Endocrinol. 2014;2014:972348.

DAS, S., et al. Autoimmune Thyroiditis Presenting as Psychosis. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry. 2017;29(3):174-176.

Dold, M., et al. Clinical correlates of augmentation/combination treatment strategies in major depressive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2018 Feb 28.

Feldman, A.Z., et al. Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Thyroid Disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2013;42:453-476.

Hage, M.P., Azar, S.T. The Link between Thyroid Function and Depression. Journal of Thyroid Research. 2012, vol. 2012, Article ID 590648, 8 pages.

Kandukuri, R.C., et al. Nonadherence to Medication in Hypothyroidism. A Case Report. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;12(3):PCC.09m00863.

Kapoor, N., Couch, J. A Case of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy treated with only Oral Thyroid medication and symptomatic therapy for seizures and psychosis, but Without Steroids (P2.257). Neurology. Apr 2016;86(16 Supplement):P2.257.

Khurshid, S., et al. Changes in thyroid function status of suicidal patients. Arch Clin Psychiatry (São Paulo). 2018 Jan/Feb;45(1):12-14.

Lazaro, P.C.F., et al. Psychosis associated with methimazole-induced hypothyroidism: a case report. J. bras. psiquiatr. 2013;62(2):171-3.

Mavroson, M.M., et al. Myxedema Psychosis in a Patient With Undiagnosed Hashimoto Thyroiditis. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2017 Jan 1;117(1):50-54.

Nazou, M., et al. [Psychotic episode due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis]. Psychiatriki. 2016 Apr-Jun;27(2):144-7.

Pandey, V.P., et al. Verbal Episodic Memory in Young Hypothyroid Patients. Indian J Endocrine Metab. 2017 Nov-Dec;21(6):812-814.

Parikh, N., et al. A case report on myxedema madness: curable psychosis. Indian J Psychol Med. 2014 Jan;36(1):80-1.

Samuels, M.H. Psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of hypothyroidism. Cure Open Endocrinol Diabetes Obesity. 2014 Oct;21(5):377-383.

Santos, N.C., et al. Revisiting Thyroid Hormones in Schizophrenia. J Thyroid Res. 2012;2012:569147.

Sierra, P., et al. What is the real significance and management of major thyroid disorders in bipolar patients? Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2014 Apr-Jun;7(2):88-95.

Szlejf, C., et al. Thyrotropin level and cognitive performance: Baseline results from the ELSA-Brasil Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 Jan;87:152-158

Tayde, P.S., et al. Hypothyroidism and Depression: Are Cytokines the Link? Indian J Endocrine Metab. 2017 Nov-Dec;21(6):886-892.

Ueno, S., et al. Acute psychosis as an initial manifestation of hypothyroidism: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2015 Nov 17;9:264.

Zorkin, N.G., et al. Severe Hypothyroidism Presenting with Acute Mania and Psychosis: A Case Report and Literature Review. Bipolar Disord. 2017;3(1):1.

Urinary System

Basu, G., Mohapatra, A. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar-Apr;16(2):204-213.

Chang, Y.C., et al. Subclinical and overt hypothyroidism is associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria: a large cross-sectional population study. Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 1;8(1):2031.

Cuevas, E., et al. Moderate-to-high normal levels of thyrotropin is a risk factor for urinary incontinence and an unsuitable quality of life in women over 65 years. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 2017 May;44(Suppl 1).

Cuna, V., et al. Functional Abnormalities and Thyroid Nodules in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease. In Vivo. 2017 Nov-Dec;31(6):1203-1208.

Da Costa, A.B., et al. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and nodular thyroid disease in patients on hemodialysis. Hemodial Int. 2016 Jan;20(1):31-7.

Garrido-Magaña, E., et al. Thyroid dysfunction in children with chronic renal failure. Nefrologia. 2009 Oct;29(5):502.

Gupta, A., et al. Thyroid dysfunction in patients of chronic kidney disease. Int J Adv Med. 2017 Oct;4(5):1333-1337.

Justo, D., et al. Asymptomatic urinary retention in elderly women upon admission to the Internal Medicine department: A prospective study. Neurourol Urodyn. 2017 Mar;36(3):794-797.

Keller, J.J., et al. Comorbidities of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a population-based study. BJU Int. 2012 Dec;110(11 Pt C):E903-9.

Liakopoulos, V., et al. Acute Renal Failure: A Rare Presentation of Hypothyroidism. Renal Failure. 2009;31(4):323-326.

Mariani, L.H., Berns, J.S. The Renal Manifestations of Thyroid Disease. JASN. 2012 Jan;23(1):22-26.

Moeller, R., et al. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism. Case Rep Pediatr. 2011;2011:670673.

Mohamedali, M., et al. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease. Int J Nephrol. 2014;2014:520281.

Pakhle, K., et al. Thyroid dysfunctions in patients with chronic renal failure. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017 Jun;5(6):2773-2778.

Patil, V.P., et al. Evaluation of renal function in subclinical hypothyroidism. J Lab Physicians. 2018 Jan -Mar;10(1):50-55.

Rhee, C.M. The Interaction Between Thyroid and Kidney Disease: An overview of the Evidence. Cure Open Endocrinol Diabetes Obesity. 2016 Oct;23(5):407-415.

Saha, S., et al. A Study on Renal Function Status of Patients with Hypothyroidism attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Bengal. Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry. 2018 Jan-Jun;22(1):10-17.

Stan, M.N., Drake, M.T. Failing Kidneys and Thyroid Dysfunction – An Undesirable Synergy. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2018 May;93(5):555-557.

Uemura, O., et al. Influence of thyroid function ion glomerular filtration rate and other estimates of kidney function in two pediatric patients. CEN Case Rep. 2018 Feb 28.

Van De Merwe, J.P. Interstitial cystitis: a review of immunological aspects of the etiology and pathogenesis, with a hypothesis. BJU International. 2000 May;85(8):995-999.

Zabuliene, L., et al. Associations between thyroid and kidney functions. Endocrine Abstracts. 2017;49:EP1276.

Respiratory System

Ali, E.R. Assessment of functional lung impairment in patients with thyroid disorders. The Egyptian Journal of Bronchology. 2016;10(3):337-347.

Al-Sofiani, M., et al. Hypothyroidism and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema: are we missing something here? Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2015;2015:150014.

Basoglu, O.K., Tasbakan, M.S. Gender difference in clinical and polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea: a clinical study of 2827 patients. Sleep Breath. 2017 Feb 14.

Condruta, L., et al. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases. Clujul Med. 2016;89(4):459-463.

El-Shabrawy, M., et al. Treatment outcome and predictors of better response to thyroxin in hypothyroid patients with sleep apnea syndrome in Zagazig University hospital. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2017 Apr;66(2):285-291.

Fan, Y.M., et al. Prognostic factors for treatment success in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Mar 1;22(3):300-305.

Glyn, T., et al. Lessons learnt from a case of missed central hypothyroidism. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2017 Dec 2;2017.

Hamdan, A.L., et al. Phonatory symptoms and impact on quality of life in female patients with goiter. Ear Nose Throat J. 2016 Jul;95(7):E5-E10.

Kamaeva, I., Shaporova, N. Possible mechanisms of worsening bronchial asthma coexisting with thyroid gland pathology. European Respiratory Journal. 2013;42(Suppl 57):P585.

Lencu, C., et al. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases. Clujul Med. 2016;89(4):459-463.

Madhuri, G., et al. Evaluation of thyroid dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomedical Research. 2013. 24(1):110-113.

Misiolek, M., et al. Sleep apnea syndrome and snoring in patients with hypothyroidism with relation to overweight. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;58 Supplements 1:77-85.

Munehisa, F., et al. Respiratory failure associated with hypoventilation in a patient with severe hypothyroidism. Respirol Case Rep. 2014 Jun;2(2):79-80.

Nafae, R.M., et al. Thyroid function in respiratory failure patients. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 2014 Apr;63(2):513-521.

Naveen, D., et al. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Hypothyroidism. Cannot Forget Subclinical Disease and Difficult-to-Eliminate Corticosteroids. Chest. 2016 Feb;149(2):600.

Papaioannou, O., et al. Metabolic Disorders in Chronic Lung Diseases. Front Med (Lausanne). 2018 Jan 18;4:246.

Paul, J., Dasgupta, S. Co-morbidities in Hypothyroid Patients in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in India. Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy. 2012;1:106.

Petrone, A., et al. Abnormal thyroid hormones and non-thyroidal illness syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea, and effects of CPAP treatment. Sleep Med. 2016 Jul;23:21-25.

Sadek, S.H. Pulmonary consequences of hypothyroidism. Ann Thorac Med. 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):204-208.

Simmons, L.H., et al. Case 38-2014: A man with sore throat, hoarseness, fatigue, and dyspnea. N Engl J Med. 2015 Mar 5;372(10):982.

Sorensen, J.R., et al. Respiratory Manifestations of Hypothyroidism: A Systematic Review. Thyroid. 2016 Nov;26(11):1519-1527.

Ulasli, S.S., et al. Effect of thyroid function on COPD exacerbation frequency: a preliminary study. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2017 Dec 14;14(12). pii: E1576.

Valjevac, S., et al. Assessment of Lung Dysfunction with Spirometry in Patients with Thyroid Disorders. Acta Inform Med. 2011;19(1):16-18.

Cardiovascular System

Altamirano Ufion, A., et al. Subclinical Hypothyoridism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality. Cardiol Res Pract. 22017;2017:7539735.

Bano, A., et al. Thyroid Function and the Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: The Rotterdam Study. Circ Res. 2017 Dec 8;121(12):1392-1400.

Beukhof, C.M., et al. Effects of Thyrotropin on Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Metabolism and Serum Lipids. Thyroid. 2018 Feb;28(2):168-174.

Binu, A.J., et al. The Heart of the Matter: Cardiac Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases. Indian J Endocrine Metab. 2017 Nov-Dec;21(6):919-925.

Charles, L., et al. Secondary Hypertension: Discovering the Underlying Cause. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Oct 1;96(7):453-461.

Evagelopoulos, M.E., et al. Mitral valve prolapse in young healthy individuals. An early index of autoimmunity? Lupus. 2009;18(5):436-440.

Floriani, C., et al. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: 2016 update. Our Heart J. 2018 Feb 14;39(7):503-507.

Funasako, M., et al. Hypothyroidism Frequently Occurs in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Associated with Connective Tissue Disease Compared with Idiopathic and Hereditary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2012. 135:A1906.

Grais, I.M., Sowers, J.R. Thyroid and the Heart. Am J Med. 2014 Aug;127(8):691-698.

Iaccarino, G., et al. Thyroid function predicts increased cardiovascular risk. Int J Cardiol. 2018 Mar 1;254:338-339.

Iijima, T., et al. Concurrent variant type 3 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension in a Japanese woman. Endocr J. 2018 Feb 16.

Ionescu, S.D., et al. Massive pericardial effusion associated with hypothyroidism. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2014 Jan-Mar;118(1):87-91.

Lei, L., Mao, Y. Hormone treatments in congestive heart failure. J Int Med Res. 2018 Jan 1:300060518761262.

Leonardi, A., et al. Pericardial Effusion as a Presenting Symptom of Hashimoto Thyroiditis: A Case Report. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Dec 14;14(12).pii.

Lim, H.J., et al. The Relationship between Subclinical Thyroid Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score in Koreans. J Korean Med Sci. 2017 Oct;32(10):1626-1632

Mourtzinis, G., et al. Primary aldosteronism and thyroid disorders in atrial fibrillation: A Swedish nationwide case-control study. Our J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Jan 1:2047487318759853.

Ning, Y., et al. What is the association of hypothyroidism with risks of cardiovascular events and mortality? A meta-analysis of 55 cohort studies involving 1,898,314 participants. BMC Medicine. 2017;15:21.

Parent, S., Cujec, B. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Heart Failure: Chicken or Egg? Can J Cardiol. 2018 Jan;34(1):11-12.

Patel, D.K., Gujral, J.S. Atrial Fibrillation in Hypothyroidism. JIACM. 2009;10(3):140-142.

Rizzo, C., et al. Dysthyroidism and Chronic Heart Failure: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017 Dec 13.

Sarfo-Kantanka, O., et al. The Effect of Thyroid Dysfunction on the Cardiovascular Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Ghana. J Diabetes Res. 2018 Feb 1;2018:4783093.

Shende, P., et al. A Study of Cardiovascular Changes in Newly Detected Hypothyroid Patients. MVP Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017 Jul-Dec;4(2):102-106.

Udovcic, M., et al. Hypothyroidism and the Heart. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2017 Apr-Jun;13(2):55-59.

Yadav, Y., et al. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Nov-Dec;21(6):823-829.

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About Dana Trentini

Dana Trentini founded Hypothyroid Mom October 2012 in memory of the unborn baby she lost to hypothyroidism. This is for informational purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for consulting your physician regarding medical advice pertaining to your health. Hypothyroid Mom includes affiliate links including the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program.


  1. My doctor seriously just said to me “you have some problems with your thyroid, so you need to take Levaxin (the Swedish meds). It very common with pregnancy and usually it passes after delivery”. That was 2 years ago, and this last year they haven’t been able to get the dose right one single time. They still haven’t said anything about it being a disease or anything. It was when I went to my dentist a couple of weeks ago that I realized I’m actually sick. I had to fill a form with random questions like “do you have any health conditions” and “are you on any medications?”
    I answered no on the first one, and yes on the second one, and my dentist just said “oh, so then you have a thyroid disease?” And I was like “no…? I just take one pill!” And she said “well, if you take that medication then you have a thyroid disease!”

    I never even thought of that! I got no information from my doctor, and now, after doing some
    Research, I’ve realized that this is probably the reason why I’ve felt so horrible these last two years. Depression, anxiety, tremor, heat and cold sensitive, sleep issues, digestive issues and so on… I’ve been to my doctor with all of these problems but NOT ONCE have they told me it can have something to do with my thyroid.

  2. Thank you for putting this list together- I wondered if you have come across twitching related to Hypothyroid? Facial twitching of eyelid and above lip or head twitch? Thanks!

  3. After 3 or 4 doctors told me my thyroid was normal, an endocrinologist finally saw that it wasn’t. I have been on levothyroxine for about 6 months. I have no idea if I feel better. A few months after that he diagnosed me with premenopause. I was a mess: screaming and crying over little things and felt like I was in an oven all day. He put me on HRT. Now the issue is I am extremely lightheaded, dizzy, balance is horrible, have fallen over a few times, doing and saying things that I don’t remember doing as if I’m blacking out, doing things that don’t make sense, etc. I am so scared/miserable. I read side effects of levothyroxine and all these symptoms are on it. So I thought I should stop taking the levothyroxine. I’m down to a quarter of 0.025mg and I have felt even more horrible the past 2 days. So what if it’s the HRT and not the levothyroxine?? I have no idea what to do and no doctors seem to know what’s going on, even the endocrinologist.

  4. Jerry Atson says

    My father was diagnosed with ALS in the summer of 2013;  His initial symptoms were quite noticeable. He first experienced weakness in his right arm and his speech and swallowing abilities were profoundly affected. We all did our best to seek help for this disease no medications they prescribe worked ,we were all scared we might lost him due to his condition, as he had been his brother’s caregiver a few years earlier for the same disease before he past. doctor recommend nuatural treatment from total cure herbal foundation for his ALS we have no choice to give a try on natural organic treatment ,this herbal cure has effectively reverse my father condition ,losing his balance which led to stumbling and falling stop  after the completing the herbal supplement which include his weakness in his right arm and his speech, home remedies from totalcureherbsfoundation.com is the best although their service is a little bit expensive but it worth it, they save lives.

  5. Brenda Heeligan says

    Re: Brenda Heeligan’s comments, I forgot to say the dosage I was posting about was for my Levothyroxine. Just typing this is so tiring. Many thanks.

  6. Brenda Heeligan says

    This article has been eye opening to me, I have so many of the conditions you have mentioned. I’m so thankful I found your site. I now realise hypothyroidism affects so many parts of the body. The fatigue is so debilitating that you feel your life is ebbing away and no way of getting it back on track. I’ve lived with this for so long I just wish there was something more that I could do to help myself. I’ve been taking selenium for over three months my doctor has also put me on a high dose of vitamin D. Needless to say nothing seems to be working, I’m on 100mcgs one day the next 50, then 75, I must admit to getting the doses mixed up occasionally even with a chart. My eyesight is now deteriorating. Once again thank you for enlightening me with your research. Brenda.

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